Help for using the Timeline
Place the mouse on the arrows to the left or the right side of the Timeline in order to turn the pages for the years on the Timeline.
Place the mouse on the box beside the year and hold it there for a couple of seconds to get a brief introduction to the year in question.
Click on the box to get additional information.
The text has been provided by H.C. Andersen Centret
HCA's parents are married.
Hans Christian Andersen is born in Odense and is christened at home on the same day. The corner-house in the street called Hans Jensens Stræde (the foundation of the present HCA museum) has later been regarded as the place of birth, but HCA has never acknowledged this and was not himself able to name the exact place of birth.
Anne Marie Andersdatter (born either 1773 or 1775, died 1833 in the almshouse 'Doctors Boder' and Hans Andersen (born 1782, died 1816).
Karen Marie (born 22nd September 1799, died 18th November 1846. Travelled to Copenhagen (as a stowaway passenger) in November 1822. Earned a living as a washerwoman in Copenhagen. Sought out HCA in 1842.
HCA's parents commence living together. Their address is Holsedore (then no. 330).
HCA's parents move to Klaregade (street) (then no. 310)
HCA's parents move to Klingenberg no. 646, now known as the childhood home in Munkemøllestræde. The small rental house was shared by 3 families (12 persons in all). Here, HCA's parents had a small living room and a kitchen at their disposition.
The English bombed Copenhagen.
In keeping with a commitment made to Napoleon, Denmark declares war against Sweden.
A French-Spanish auxiliary corps under Marshal Jean Jules Bernadotte arrives on Funen. The intention is that the auxiliary corps later is being transferred to Zealand in order to effect a landing in Skåne, Sweden.
Tales which HCA heard as a child about the Spaniards on Funen have later provided him with inspiration for dramas (Spanierne i Odense - The Spaniards in Odense-1833/36 and Da Spanierne var her -When The Spaniards Were Here- 1865).
Local traditions, life on the streets and playing with a puppet theatre were all influential factors in the development of HCA's imagination at an early stage.
1809 was a silent year in HCA's life.
Attended another school for infants in the same year, runnned by Fedder Carstens. This school was especially for Jewish children. It was here that HCA got to know a little Jewish girl by the name of Sara Heimann, who seems to have becomed a model for the character Naomi in the novel Kun en Spillemand (Only a Fiddler!). This school was closed in 1811 and it seems probable that HCA thenafter attended the charity school for a while, however there is no evidence of this.
A silent year in HCA's life
In 1812, volunteerly HCA's father conscripts himself as a musketeer, in the place of a farmer's son, who thus pays to avoid military service. The amount his father received was approximately 1,000 rdl. (rix dollars), a large amount for the shoemaker. The money should have provided a secure future for the family, but with the bankruptcy of the state in January 1813, the money was devalued to 1/6 of its denomination and only 1/10 of its actual value
A silent year in HCA's life.
Peace treaty after the Napoleonic Wars. Denmark loses Norway. Initially, Norway achieves a free constitution under the later King Christian VIII, but is then brought under the rule of Sweden, where Marshal Bernadotte in the mean time has become successor to the throne and has turned against Napoleon.
HCA's father, who had been no further afield than Holstein, returns home, sick and completely weakened.
A silent year in HCA's life.
HCA's father dies. HCA does not attend school at this time and his mother could not keep him at home. Driven by poverty, she was obliged to wash clothes for people; consequently the boy goes out to work. Firstly for a short time at Koch and Hirschfeldts' cloth mill in Klaregade, then at Laurids Ørnstrup's tobacco factory in Vestergade.
After this he once again spends some time at home, but in either late 1816 or early 1817, he is once more placed in the charity school (where he is taught religion, writing and arithmetic) so he is out of the way when his mother goes to work.
During these years, HCA makes connections which will be significant in the future. It is via Bishop Plum, for example, that he gets to know Colonel Christian Høegh-Guldberg
A silent year in HCA's life.
HCA's mother remarries (shoemaker Niels Jørgensen Gundersø, 1787-1822). It may be assumed that the new marriage meant that the boy no longer had the full attention of his mother and that this was instrumental in HCA's departure from Odense, his childhood town.
HCA leaves Odense, armed with a letter of recommendation from Mr Iversen, the newspaper publisher and printer, to give to Anne Margrethe Schall, ballet dancer at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen. Travels as a stowaway, i.e. gets on and off the wagon outside the town gates of Odense and Copenhagen respectively. Brings with him his savings consisting of 13 rdl., out of which 3 rdl. are used for payment of the trip as stowaway.
HCA arrives in Copenhagen and witnesses the feud against the Jews, which, in the wake of similar events in Germany, had just erupted on 4th September. Applies in person with the letter of recommendation to Madame Schall (for whom he performs a grotesque "ballet") and is then thrown out. He then goes to Holstein, the theatre director and chamberlain, but with no positive outcome.
18th September (presumably)
HCA is introduced to Siboni, the newly appointed director of the theatre's school of singing, at a social event where also the composer Weyse and the poet Baggesen are present. Siboni promises HCA singing lessons and meals at his house (Vingårdsstræde 134, later no. 5).
HCA goes once more to Weyse. He writes to Colonel Høegh-Guldberg's brother, the poet and professor Fr. Høgh-Guldberg. The latter collects money for HCA from different friends. Guldberg promises HCA he will give him lessons in reading and writing Danish correctly, as well as instruction in German. He also sees to it that HCA receives some instruction in Latin.
Siboni terminates the agreement concerning singing lessons, as he does not believe HCA has any future as a singer in the theatre (HCA's voice is breaking at this time). Visits the solo dancer C. Dahlén, who allows HCA to join the dance school of the Court Theatre, in order to learn ballet during the season of 1820/21.
By chance HCA has his first stage performance as walker-on (in a crowd scene).
HCA has his actual debut as walker-on (plays a "musician" in Gleottis' ballet Nina). Is made a choir student with no regular payment. In one year he was able to earn a total of 25 rdl. for his services at the theatre. The actor F. Lindgreen gives him private lessons, but advises him to give up the dream of becoming an actor.
HCA's name appears on a playbill for the first time. He has a small part as a "troll" in the ballet Armida, composed by Carl Dahlén. On the same playbill, the name Johanne Luise Pätges (spelled Johanne Petcher) also appears for the first time. This is the later Johanne Luise Heiberg, for decades Denmark's most famed actress, who was married to the poet, critic and theatre director Johan Ludvig Heiberg. Like HCA, she too originated from the lower classes of society.
HCA is hired by P.C. Krossing, director at the Royal Theatre's singing school. Writes a tragedy in unrhymed verse titled Skovkapellet (The Forest Chapel), which is proof-read by Høegh-Guldberg. The tragedy is shelved, after first being played to Kamma Rahbek, Oehlenschläger and Ingemann.
Guldberg stops teaching HCA, due to the student's lack of diligence.
HCA submits to the theatre a "tragedy of the fatherland", titled Røverne i Vissenberg (The Vissenberg Robbers). It is turned down on 16th June. But even before he learned of the theatre's opinion of The Vissenberg Robbers, he had written Alfsol, another tragedy in 5 acts. Rural Dean C. Gutfeldt, at the Church of the Royal Dockyards (the Navy) encouraged HCA to submit Alfsol to the theatre.
HCA has his first book published; Ungdomsforsøg (Attempts during Youth), using the nom de plume Villiam Christian Walter (after Shakespeare, himself and Walter Scott). The book did not sell and the greater part of the edition was then destroyed.
Alfsol is deemed unsuitable for the theatre. But the rebuff includes a recommendation that HCA should be sent to a "Latin school", the equivalent of a grammar school today. On the 13th September HCA is called to a board meeting, where the offer is presented to him. He accepts gratefully. It is left to Jonas Collin to organize the matter. It was decided that HCA should be sent to the prestigious "Latin School" in Slagelse. Simon Meisling had recently been made principle at the Latin School. Collin was to be his guardian and HCA promises to write him regularly.
HCA arrives in Slagelse. Because he lacks skills in most subjects, the school places him in the 2nd grade amongst boys aged 11-12. In the same year, Ingemann is employed as lecturer at Sorø Academy, now rebuilt and reopened. Although the period of schooling under Meisling turns out to be catastrophic, the close contact with Sorø and Ingemann are of immeasurable importance for HCA during his years at Slagelse.
On Sundays and during breaks, HCA would often walk to Sorø, where he got to know and later became friends with the poet B.S. Ingemann, his elder by 16 years. Amongst the alumni at the Academy in Sorø, he also got to know Carl Bagger, who later became a poet, bohemian writer and editor, as well as Fritz Petit (who in 1829 moved to Germany and became one of HCA's translators). These three became close friends in their youth.
A silent year in HCA's life.
HCA and the entire senior class of the school witness the execution of three murderers on a hill between Slagelse and Skælskør. The event makes a strong impression on HCA.
Once again in Odense, where his mother has been granted free residency at the almshouse, Doctors Boder.
Upon Meisling's suggestion, HCA moves in with him. The grotesque bustle of life at the home of the Meislings provides material for tales of Peer's school-life in Lykke Peer (Lucky Peter), amongst others.
To Copenhagen, where Christmas is spent, upon invitation, with the Wulffs. In Levnedsbogen (The Biography), HCA cites impressions recorded in his early diaries stemming from this visit:
"Out there on the great courtyard [at the Wulffs' HCA has a bedroom facing the palace courtyard] I would walk, 5 or 6 years ago; no one in the entire city knew me, and now, in the company of a dear and esteemed family, I may revel in my Shakespeare, - Oh Lord, it is just like Aladdin, I too sit at the palace and look down. Merciful God! No, you will not forsake me. I could embrace you!"
HCA moves to Elsinore with the Meisling family, where Meisling is to be principle of the "Latin School" (equivalent to grammar school).
The grant for HCA's education from the fund ad usus publicos is extended by two years.
HCA writes the poem "Det Døende Barn" (The Dying Child) whilst under the influence of his own lamentable circumstances at the Meislings'. HCA recites the poem for the German-born Ludolph Schley, who was in Elsinore during this year. Schley was a merchant and translator of Swedish literature to German (he had travelled quite a bit in Sweden). Schley translated and published the poem in Germany without HCA knowing (cf. the timetable 1827).
Collin takes HCA out of Meisling's school. HCA moves to Copenhagen on the 18th.. He is tutored privately in preparation for the Danish equivalent of the General Certificate of Education (England) or high school graduation (USA) by the theologian and historian Ludvig Christian Müller.
17th August ff.
Has several poems published in Johan Ludvig Heiberg's periodical, "Kjøbenhavns Flyvende Post" (Copenhagen's Flying Post). HCA had met Heiberg at one of his weekly Friday dinners at the home of Hans Christian Ørsted.
The poem "Det Døende Barn" (The Dying Child) - one of HCA's most famous - is printed in A.P Liunges paper, "Københavnsposten" (The Copenhagen Post), with a German translation next to it, written by HCA's acquaintance from Elsinore, Ludolph Schley, cf. 1826, (later, in December 1828, it was reprinted in Heiberg's periodical, Copenhagen's Flying Post. The translation had first been printed, anonymously - without HCA's knowledge, in a newspaper in Libau in East Prussia (summer of 1827), where Schley had arrived as Swedish secretary to the Consulate after leaving Elsinore in 1826).
HCA moves to Store Kongensgade 33, house no. 9, 3rd floor. Frequently socialises with Carl Bagger, who had moved to Copenhagen in the spring
HCA sits the "studentereksamen" (equivalent of General Certificate of Education (England) or High School Graduation (USA)) at the University of Copenhagen (the exam was held in "the large auditorium" in Eilers Kollegium (college) in the street known as St. Kannikestræde). The head of faculty who received him was the poet Adam Oehlenschläger - a very influential figure in Danish literary romanticism and a role model for HCA. At the matriculation, HCA chose Oehlenschläger to be his private tutor at the university.
HCA gives an oath of allegiance to the 2nd company of the King's Guards.
Chapters from Fodreise (A Walking Tour) are printed in Heiberg's paper "Kjøbenhavns Flyvende Post" (Copenhagen's Flying Post) (HCA was thus admitted to the leading literary circles and ensured favourable publicity for his coming book).
The debut Fodreise (A Walking Tour from Holmen Canal to The Eastern Point of Amager in the Years 1828 and 1829) is published by HCA himself. The edition of 500 copies was quickly sold.
First performance of the play Love in The Tower of Nicolai at the Royal Theatre. According to HCA, it was a success, although it was only performed 3 times.
31st May - 29th August
Departure aboard the steamship Dania to Århus. This is the beginning af a journey, on which HCA wants to collect material in Jutland. The journey goes to amongst others the towns Randers and Viborg in Jutland and on Funen Middelfart, Odense, Svendborg, Fåborg, Assens and Odense again, where he visits his mother.
Arrival in Faaborg. Visits an old school friend, Christian Voigt, and becomes infatuated with his sister, Riborg, who is, however, already engaged. Later he writes "Hjertets Melodier"(Melodies of the Heart) for her (e.g. "To brune Øjne (A pair of Brown Eyes). As evidence of the affair, HCA included in Levnedsbogen (The Biography) a letter written to Riborg 30th October 1830 (almost 3 months after his arrival in Fåborg and written when they met again in Copenhagen). In this letter, he reveals his feelings; "I could be anything by your side"and "I live in hope, without which my life is lost", but at the same time he is in retreat; "Your brother has now told me of your engagement, thus I should resign myself to stepping aside"and "forget a creature who could never, never forget you". The post script to the letter tellingly states: "For heavens sake, please do not think that this is but a poet's dream on my part!"
16th May - 24th June
Departure on the first journey outside of Denmark. The trip is not least an attempt to get over the fatal infatuation in Riborg Voigt.
HCA writes to Edvard Collin from Hamburg, suggesting that they start addressing each other informally (using the Danish second-person pronoun "du" rather than "De", which is a difference similar to the German "du" and "Sie", or the French "tu" and "Vous"). On 28th May
Edvard Collin sends a refusal to HCA. This fatal "informality incident" preyed on HCA's mind for many years and may be seen to play a part in the fairy tale "Skyggen" (´"The Shadow").
Publication of Skyggebilleder af en Reise til Harzen, det sachsiske Schweitz etc. etc., i Sommeren 1831 (Rambles in the Romantic Regions of the Hartz Mountains, Saxon Switzerland, etc.
HCA has arranged for his mother to have meals from the public food kitchen, at his expense. His mother, however, would prefer the money. HCA remained steadfast on this issue.
HCA develops an infatuation for Louise Collin.
Prince Christian (later King Christian VIII) visits the almshouse Doctors Boder in Odense and asks to see HCA's mother.He Tells her that she has reason to be very proud of her son. From 2nd to 17th July HCA is in Odense and visits his mother for the last time.
Applies for a travel grant from the fund ad usus publicos (the royal fund which supports art and science).
Release of the collection of poems: Aarets tolv Maaneder, tegnede med Blæk og Pen (The Twelve Months of the Year, Portrayed in Ink and Pen) which HCA presents to King Frederik VI, taking the opportunity to inform the king of his need to undertake a lengthy journey of personal development or "bildung".
HCAs gets the travel grant, so he can travel to Italy, where he collects material to the major breakthrough with the novel The Improvisatore (da. 1835, eng. 1845). His mother dies while he is away.
HCA is allocated a travel grant, by royal order, from the fund ad usus publicos (600 rdl. pr. year for two years, also receives an added grant of 200 rdl. at a later date).
The journey to Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy starts with departure from Copenhagen and goes among other places to Paris, where HCA stays from 10th May to 15th August and visits Victor Hugo. From Paris he went to Genève. On 15th September he went on to Italy.
HCA's mother dies. HCA does not know until the 16th December, when a letter from Edvard Collin arrives. Writes about the mothers death to Henriette Wulff:
"Her position in life was harsh, and I could do almost nothing for her; this often saddened me at home, but I could never discuss it! Now the Lord has taken her into his care, and for this I am respectfully grateful; it has, however, affected me deeply. Now I really am quite alone, - no longer is any creature bound by nature to love me".
On to Florence. Arrives in Rome October 18, where he remains until 12th February 1834. In The Fairy Tale of My Life (Mit Livs Eventyr) he describes Rome as follows; "of all the cities in the world, the one where I soon came to feel completely at home".
Arrival in Naples, where HCA is often offered both boy and girl prostitutes on the streets, but dares not indulge himself.
HCA and Henrik Hertz climb Vesuvius at Herculanum.
From Naples back to Rome, where HCA spends Easter. Departure from Rome 1st April. Via Florence, Bologna, Padova to Venice (where he remains from 20th - 22nd April). Stays from 1st to 31st May in Munich. On his way home he stays shortly in among other cities Prague (11-14th July) and Berlin (24-26th July). Arrives in Copenhagen on 3rd of August.
Improvisatoren (The Improvisatore, or: Life in Italy) is published by C.A. Reitzel, HCA's usual Danish publisher, and in the same month in german, translated by Laurids Kruse: Jugenleben und Träume eines italienischen Dichters (The Youth and Dreams Of An Italian Poet). With this and the three following novels HCA places himself at the forefront of the new, modern genre, namely the novel, in fact the contemporary novel. It was indeed the novels which initially won HCA fame in Europe.
Release of Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Første Hefte (Tales, Told for Children. First Booklet) including "Fyrtøjet" (The Tinder Box), "Lille Claus og store Claus" (Lille Claus og store Claus), "Princessen paa Aærten" (The Princess on the Pea), "Den lille Idas Blomster" (Little Ida's Flowers). With reference to the fairy-tales, HCA writes to Ingemann in a letter dated 10th February:
"I have included a couple of those fairy-tales which I myself enjoyed so much as a child, and which I believe are not well known; I have simply written them the way I would tell them to a child".
Release of Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Andet Hefte (Tales, Told for Children. Second Booklet), including: "Tommelise"(Thumbelina), "Den uartige Dreng"(The Naughty Boy), "Reisekammaraten"(The Travelling Companion). 2nd edition, 1843.
Publication of the novel O.T. (the letters are an abbreviation of Odense Tugthus (Prison), where the hero of the novel, Otto Thostrup, is born.) The book is already sold out in the beginning of June.
In Copenhagen HCA seeks out the French author Xavier Marmier, who writes a biographical portrayal of HCA: "La vie d'un poète", first published in Revue de Paris october 1837. Meeting Marmier will be highly significant for the introduction of HCA in Europe.København
The wedding day of Henriette Thybjerg and Edvard Collin. An entry in HCA's diary (there is every reason to believe that it is dated to early august 1836 and not, as formerly assumed, to 1830) from early August, presumably inspired by the friend's forthcoming wedding, reads:
"Almighty God, you're all I have, my fate is in your hands. I must put my faith in you! Grant me a livelihood! Send me a bride! My blood craves love, as does my heart".
Publication of Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Tredie Hefte (Tales, Told for Children.Third Booklet) including: "Den lille Havfrue" (The Little Mermaid) and "Kejserens nye Klæder" (The Emperor's New Clothes).
20th June - 19th July
HCAs first trip to Sweden, where he makes acquaintance with Frederika Bremer.
Release of the novel Kun en Spillemand (Only A Fiddler). The three first novels form - also from the perspective of readers abroad - a closed circle including depiction of "life in Italy"(a favourite subject of painters and writers of the romanticist period and on) and of "life in Denmark"(HCA's contribution to the exotic traits in the literature of the time). Regarding his new novel, HCA had already in May 1836 written to Henriette Hanck, saying that it would embody:
"The poetic traits of our age, here in Denmark, only the poetic, nothing from daily life but truth just the same [!!!] I wish to be the best novelist in Denmark".
Sophie Ørsted is engaged to Fritz Dahlstrøm, a bachelor of law (HCA had been infatuated in her for a period of time).
By royal resolution, HCA is awarded an annual grant of 400 rdl. While HCA still awaited the outcome of this matter, with doubt and anticipation, he wrote (on 25th Nov. 1837) to Henriette Hanck, saying that if he were awarded the 400rdl., it would;
"...be such wonderful luck! And yet - it is not enough to be overjoyed, I need 1000 rdl. a year before I may permit myself to fall in love, and 1500 before I dare marry. And by the time this almost impossible wish becomes a reality, the young girl will be gone, swept away by someone else, and I'll be an old, dried up bachelor; such sad prospects [...] No, I'll never be rich, never satisfied and never - in love!"
HCA writes to Jette Wulff, who is holidaying at Nysø, saying that "My love for the ocean has now reached such heights that I, despite my advanced age, have now engaged a swimming instructor" (Letter dated 22nd June). The lessons took place at the Naval Academy.
Release of Søren Kierkegaard's debut book: Af en endnu Levendes Papirer (From The Notes of One Still Living). The book is a lengthy and in-depth criticism of Kun en Spillemand (Only a Fiddler) and of HCA's abilities as a novelist in general. Kierkegaard denies that HCA has any aptitude as a novelist and accuses him of not having "philosophy of life".
Release of Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. NySamling. Første Hefte. (Tales, Told For Children. NewCollection. First Booklet). This includes"Gaaseurten"(The Daisy), "Den Standhaftige Tinsoldat"(TheSteadfast Tin Soldier) and "De vilde Svaner"(The WildSwans).
Trip to Skåne. Travels via Malmø to HybyEstate, where he visits Baron Carl Gustaf Wrangel von Brehmer from 23 rd to 29 th , also going on outings to a number of other places: Participates on 23 rd in Midsummer festivities at Heckeberga, then visits Baron Julius Coyet on the 24 th, at Torup, where HCA meets the Countesses Lovisa and Matilda Bark and becomes a littleenamoured. The 25 th is spent with the uncle of CountessBark, Count Corfitz Beck-Friis, at Börringe Estate,the 27 th is spent in Lund, where HCA sees the cathedral and university and visits the young Count Bark. On 28 th, he pays a visit to Count Tage Kjell Thott at Skabersjö. Back home in Copenhagen on 1st July.
Release of Eventyr fortalte for Børn. Ny Samling. Andet Hefte (Tales, Told for Children. New Collection. Second booklet). Included are: "Paradisets Have" (The Garden of Paradise), "Den flyvende Kuffert" (The Flying Trunk) and "Storkene" (The Storks).
Billedbog uden Billeder (Picture Book without Pictures) is published (contains the first 20 "evenings").
HCA departs on a journey which would last almost one year. This journey would provide him with background material for En Digters Bazar (A Poet's Bazaar).
HCA hears Franz Liszt play at a concert in Hamburg. 11th November he seeks out Mendelsohn-Batholdy during a rehearsal of Beethoven's Symphony no. 7. in Gewandhaus.
Travels by train for the first time. The trip from Magdeburg to Leipzig (approx. 110 km) lasted from 7 am till approx. 10.30 am. This is the train trip HCA describes in his famous passage in En Digters Bazar (A Poet's Bazaar), namely the chapter "The Railway". Here he calls the railway "a master piece of the mind and says that he has now:
"...with all my consciousness, seen God face to face, as it were, [....]. Emotion and imagination are not the only rulers within the realm of poetry. They have a brother, equally powerful, called intellect"
13th - 23rd February
HCA experiences the carnival in Rome. Leaves Rome on 25th February, travels to Naples. On the 15th March he leaves Naples on the steam-ship Leonidas. Destination: Athens. 17th March he arrives at Malta. 18th March he goes from Malta via Syra, then on through Pireus to Athens, where he arrives at on 24th March.
Arrival in Constantinople, which he leaves 5th May. Sails through the Bosporus to The Black Sea and to Küstendje (Constanta). On 7th May, via Tartariet in Bulgaria, aboard the Danube Ship named Argo. Passes by Rustchuk (8th May) and other Bulgarian towns, through the Iron Gate (Romania, 11-12th May) to Orsova. Departs Orsova 24th May by carriage, headed for Drenkova. On from here aboard the steamship Galathea to Budapest (Pesth), where he stays from 31st May to 2nd June.
Returns to Copenhagen.
Release of Eventyr, fortalte for Børn. Ny samling. Tredie Hefte (Tales, Told for Children. New Collection. Third Booklet). Includes: "Willie Winkie" ("Ole Lukoie"), "The Rose Alf" ("Rosen-Alfen"), "The Swineherd" ("Svinedrengen") and "The Buckwheat" ("Boghveden").
Receives a letter from his half-sister Karen. Sends her a letter on the 11th and receives a visit on the 12th from Kaufman, the man whom she lives with.
Publication of A Poet's Bazaar, the book describing HCA's great journey through Europe to the Orient. This is HCA's first travel book, in every respect a work intended to measure up to European standards. A brilliant journalistic portrayal of culture, technology (the railway journey) and folk life.
Receives a visit from Karen, his half-sister. Gives her 1 rdl.
30th January - 15th June
Journey in Europe; to Germany, Belgium and France, sees among others Alexandre Dumas senior, Heinrich Heine and Victor Hugo.
Attends the opening of Tivoli Gardens. Greatly inspired by the Chinese buildings etc., HCA returns home after another visit to Tivoli on 11th October and writes "Nattergalen" (The Nightingale) (in just two days).
Jenny Lind, the famed Swedish singer, is in Copenhagen. HCA spends time with her almost every day, both privately and at her performances. He is very infatuated in her.
Release of Nye Eventyr. 1. Samling. (New Tales, 1st Installment) This includes: "Engelen" (The Angel), "Nattergalen" (The Nightingale), "Kjærestefolkene" (The Sweethearts), "Den grimme Ælling" (The Ugly Duckling). HCA comments on the booklet of fairy-tales in a letter dated 10th December 1843:
"These fairy-tales have met with great approval. None of my other books have been such a source of joy. All the magazines praise them, everyone reads them, and not borrowed from the neighbour's neighbour, but bought! I am now being recognised as the leading writer of fairy-tales - in short, on this occasion I have every reason to be content with my readers!
25th - 31st July
Staying in Berlin. Goes on 26th to see Jacob Grimm, philologist and publisher of fairy-tales, who had never heard of HCA!
12th - 27th August
Stays at Glorup, where he is invited by Queen Caroline Amalie to stay with her and Christian VIII on Føhr.
Arrives in Føhr. Reads aloud fairy-tales for the queen, the king and the court respectively. Participates in excursions to Oland and Amrom.
This day is celebrated in honour of the 25th anniversary of HCA's arrival in Copenhagen. Christian VIII congratulates him and mentions how famous he now is in Germany.
Travels from Føhr to Augustenborg, where he arrives 11th September. During his stay here, HCA sometimes feels very concerned by the political discussions (concerning the question of Slesvig-Holstein) and hears about political/national unrest.
Nye Eventyr, 2. Samling (New Tales, 2nd Installment) ("Grantræet" (The Fir Tree) and "Sneedronningen" (The Snow Queen)) is published. On the same day, Billedbog uden Billeder. Anden forøgede Udgave (Picture Book without Pictures. Second Expanded Edition is released (31 evenings).
HCA is being translated into both russian, english and german and he is courted everywhere.
This year more sizeable editions of HCA's fairy-tales are published in Germany, and various publishers offers to publish his collected works. In September a new and extended German edition of Picture Book without Pictures called Bilderbuch ohne Bilder. This is the 6th edition since 1841. This particular book, which never received a great deal of attention in Denmark, is one of HCA's most popular on the German Market. In England Mary Howitt's translation of Improvisatoren, which was published in russian earlier this year, titled The Improvisatore, or, Life in Italy, is published.
Release of Nye Eventyr. Tredje Samling (New Tales. Third Installment) ("Elverhøj" (The Elf Mound), "De røde Skoe" (The Red Shoes), "Springfyrene" (The Jumpers), "Hyrdinden og Skorsteensfeieren" (The Shepherdess and the Chimneysweep),"Holger Danske").
HCA departs on a journey in Europe lasting almost a full year. He is the centre of attention in Berlin's high society. The sister of the painter Caroline Bardua, Wilhelmine, has made the following entry in her diary:
"By his mere presence, the poet Andersen affects every one in the social circles - from the court and downwards - he is the hero of the day".
In her diary, Wilhelmine Bardua describes HCA as "highly talkative and accompanies his talk with lively gesticulating" and claims that he "is quite good looking".
HCA continues the journey he started in autumn 1846: 7th January from Berlin to Weimar, where he is embraced by the hereditary grand duke, who would like for HCA to remain in Weimar forever as a new Goethe.
The first English version of HCA's fairy-tales is released. Enters into a contract with Lorck for a german edition of his collected works.
Travels from Dresden to Prague and continues to among others Vienna. Arrives in Rome 31st March. HCA stays in Rome for one month. On 1st May he travels with Count Paar from Rome to Naples. The impressions from Naples during the overwhelming heat inspire HCA to start the story "Skyggen" (The Shadow).
The journey home starts with depart from Naples. HCA travels by the steamship Castor to Marseilles, where he meets the violinist Ole Bull. Arrives in Copenhagen on 14th October.
HCA is made a knight of the Order of The Dannebrog.
January - February
The autobiography Das Märchen meines Lebens ohne Dichtung I-II (German for: The Nonfictional Fairy-tale of My Life) is published by Lorck in Leipzig as the first volume of the German Gesammelte Werke (Collected Works). This is HCA's first official autobiography which is thus internationally launched - it is translated by Mary Howitt and released in England during HCA's visit there in the summer of 1847 - 8 years before publication of an official Danish autobiography. An American pirate copy of Mary Howitt's translation, The True Story of My Life, is released in the same year in Boston.
Release of Nye Eventyr. Andet Bind Første Samling (New Tales. Volume Two. First Installment) including: ("Den gamle Gadeløgte" (The Old Street Lamp), "Nabofamilierne" (The Neighbouring Families), "Stoppenaalen" (The Darning Needle), "Lille Tuk" (Little Tuk) and "Skyggen" (The Shadow).
Departs on the trip to England. Arrives in Amsterdam 13th June. On 19th June a party is held for HCA at Hotel d'Europe in Haag. Takes the train 21st June to Rotterdam and from here the steamship Batavier to London.
HCA arrives in London. Meets Dickens on 16th July (the diary: "as we spoke on the verandah, tears came to my eyes").
Departure from London to York by train and on to Edinburgh. Goes on an outing to the Scottish Highlands 19th - 24th August. Along the way he meets several people who recognize him from pictures. Is back in London on the 26th.´HCA sums up his impressions of London in Mit Livs Eventyr (The Fairy Tale of My Life) with the following words: ""the high life" and "poverty", these are the two poles in my memories".
Departure from London. Arrives in Copenhagen on the 23rd September.
Christian VIII dies, Frederik VII is the new king. HCA is deeply affected by the death of the king.
Nye Eventyr. Andet Bind. Anden Samling. (New Tales. Volume Two. Second Installment) ("Det gamle Huus" (The Old House), "Vanddraaben" (The Drop of Water), "Den lille Pige med Svovlstikkerne" (The Little Match Girl), "Den lykkelige Familie" (The Happy Family), "Historien om en Moder" (The Story of a Mother), "Flipperne" (The Shirt Collar)).
First meeting at Casino, after news of the revolution in Paris reaches Denmark, two weeks after the event took place, and after news of the revolutionary conditions in Germany and of the mass public meeting in Rendsborg. The next day there is a meeting at the Hippodrome in Nørregade. The second big meeting at Casino which lead to a mass procession to Christiansborg Castle on the next day is held 20th March. HCA was one of those chosen by the Committee for Order to guide the people through the streets of Copenhagen during the processions and prevent them from behaving rashly.
The war concerning the matter of Slesvig-Holsten breaks out when Frederik VII refuses to accept demands placed by the deputation from Slesvig-Holsten. On the next day, the Prince of Nør takes the Rendsborg garrison by surprise, and the other garrisons in the duchies also end up in the hands of the rebels.
On the suggestion of "one of our skilful civil servants" (cf. Mit Livs Eventyr (The Fairy Tale of My Life)), HCA writes a letter to William Jerdan, publisher of The Library Gazette in London. The letter, which is published here as well as in several other international newspapers. The letter defends Denmark's cause and urges that peace and understanding between countries is the solution for Europe.
Release of The Two Baronesses by Bentley of London. Danish release (De to Baronesser) 25th November.
The cease-fire is cancelled and war recommences. On Maundy Thursday, 5th April, the ship of the line 'Christian VIII' is blown up. HCA knows several of the victims by name.
Farewell party for HCA at Fredrika Bremer's, held because he is going to Sweden. HCA feels the need to get away from Denmark and the war.
Ascension Day: departs for Sweden by ship from Copenhagen, via Elsinore to Helsingborg. From here, on to Gothenburg, then on 22nd May with the steam-ship Polhem via the Göta Canal, past Trollhättan, through Vänern and Vättern and the archipelago to Stockholm, where HCA stays from 25th May to 5th June.
Denmark's new democratic constitution is now in effect. Sails from Stockholm to Uppsala. 11th - 17th June once again in Stockholm. 18th June HCA departs Stockholm for a 14-day trip to Dalarne and Uppsala. Takes part in a moving Midsummer celebration at Leksand. Whilst here, he cuts a castle in paper for the daughter of the hostess,
"and she was so happy. Shortly thereafter I heard a shout of joy outside and I could not help but peek; the entire household was delighted. Then there was a knock at the door and old grandmother brought me some of her spicy biscuits, but with a request; would I cut, in the evening, some new shapes for her, for making biscuits, because I was able. So now I have sat for a whole hour, cutting out men, women, swans and dancers, and these are the future shapes of spicy biscuits in the town Leksand. I doubt they will be known as Andersen's biscuits, but the hostess will probably tell the story often; that there had been "a skilled stranger". There are many different ways of being immortalised! - Who would have thought that while Europe is being reshaped, I would come to Dalerne and revolutionise the shape of spicy biscuits! -"
(letter dated 24th June to Jette Wulff).
Returns to Copenhagen.
Oehlenschläger dies at eleven pm, "approximately the same time (and day) as Christian VIII" (cf the almanac). HCA's dirge (song of mourning), "Farvel, Du største Skjald i Norden" (Farewell Thou Greatest of Nordic Poets), is sung on 26th January, when the funeral procession makes a halt at Oehlenschläger's place of birth in Vesterbrogade. The song is published in the newspaper Berlingske Tidende on the same day, as well as in Fædrelandet and Kjøbenhavnsposten.
First performance of Ole Lukøie. Eventyr-Comedie i tre Acter (Willie Winkie. Romantic Comedy in Three Acts). H.C. Lumbye, musician at Casino, had composed music for the play, but it was never performed with Lumbye's music. This play was the first original composition written for the private theatre. In a time of war, the play advocated a simple and comforting philosophy: "Health and cheerfulness in addition/ that's the worthiest treasure you can get". The song "Hvor Skoven dog er frisk og stor" (How refreshing and great the woods are) originates from the play and became immensely popular. The play was no less of a crowd-pleaser due to a renowned Spanish dancer named Pepita, who performed some of the dances. The play was performed a total of 117 times at Casino.
2nd - 20th February
Takes part in the celebrations in honour of the returning soldiers. The poem "Landsoldaten's Hjemkomst" (The home-coming of the soldier) is printed in the newspaper Fædrelandet (The Fatherland) on 10th February and HCA himself finances 2,000 copies for distribution at a function in "Ridehuset". Fetches books of ballads, paid for by Reitzel, and distributes them amongst the soldiers.18th February Fædrelandske Vers og Sange under Krigen (Poetry and Songs from the Fatherland during the War) is released. HCA had gotten this idea a week earlier, on the 13th: to collect the war-time poetry of the nation and release it, using the proceeds to help "the wounded and the families of the fallen". Reitzel was enthusiastic about the idea and took the task upon himself.
Release of I Sverrig. Concurrent release in Germany and England.
Travels from Glorup Estate via Svendborg, where Viggo Drewsen arrives with the steam-ship, to Als and on from here to Slesvig. Sees the positions and the traces from the war and visits Dannevirke. Travels to Leipzig, Prague and Dresden with Viggo Drewsen. From Dresden, Viggo Drewsen travels back to Copenhagen on the 8th. The return journey, which went via Glorup and Nyborg, is commenced on 23rd.
HCA is appointed titular professor.
Release of Historier (Stories), including: "Aarets Historie (The Story of The Year), "Verdens deiligste Rose" (The Lovliest Rose in the World), "Et Billede fra Castelsvolden" (A Picture from the Rampart at Castel), "Paa den yderste Dag" (The Final Day), "Det er ganske vist" (That is Quite So), "Svanereden" (The Swan's Nest), "Et godt Humeur" (A Good Mood). The designation "Historier" ("Stories") instead of "Eventyr" ("fairy-tales") is new and and indicates a change from pure fairy-tales into more experimental short stories.
Departure from Copenhagen to Travemünde and from here on to Lübeck. From here by train to Weimar. Is collected by and invited to stay with his old friend Beaulieu, the lord chamberlain. Travels to Leipzig 10th June, where he is joined by Viggo Drewsen, who has arrived from Copenhagen. Departure from Leipzig on 13th, stopping in Nuremberg, then continuing to Munich, where HCA is invited to visit King Max at Starnberg. Is requested to visit King Ludwig (father of King Max) at the castle Wittelsbach.
Departs from Munich, accompanied by Viggo Drewsen. Via Lindau, Chur and across the Alps to Italy. From Como by train to Milano (where they go up to the open marble halls of the cathedral: "Like a fantasy castle made of snow" (the diary, 4th July). Return via Como and Luzern. They continue on to Zürich, and from there via Schaffhausen and Freiburg to Heidelberg. The journey continues to Frankfurt. Further on to Kastel by train and from there along the Rhine via St. Goar and Koblenz to Cologne. Then via Hannover, Hamburg and Kiel, on the way back to Copenhagen (approx. 23rd July).
Release of Historier. Anden Samling. (Stories. Second Collection). ("Hjertesorg" (Heartache), "Alt paa sin rette Plads" (Everything in its Proper Place), "Nissen hos Spekhøkeren" (The Goblin and the Grocer), "Om Aatusinder" (Thousands of Years from Now), "Under Piletræet" (Under The Willow Tree).
In letters to Henriette Wulff (5th june) and Carsten Hauch (a letter dated 3rd June) HCA relates how, in Copenhagen, the poet and telegraph-director Peter Faber had recently demonstrated the principle of telegraphing for him. The telegraph line Elsinore - Copenhagen - Fredericia - Hamburg was laid out in 1852-1853 and opened 1st February 1854. Use of the telegraph was thus demonstrated to HCA while it was still only the employees who practised on the line. Peter Faber telegraphed to the staff in Elsinore and told them that HCA was standing next to him. The staff in Elsinore replied by quoting "Every skipper has a wife", or as HCA writes in a letter dated 3rd June to Hauch:
[...] the entire first verse of one of my own oldest poems, written, I believe, during my school-days in Elsinore. I felt strangely overwhelmed by the enormity of the invention; it was as though I stood beneath the beating wings of an infinitely powerful spirit [...] I feel and see God's infinite love also in every new insight which he allows us into the laws and powers of nature, and the elevated power he thereby grants mankind [...]
The two first volumes of Samlede Skrifter (Collected Works) are published.
Travels to Germany and Italy with 21 year-old Einar, son of Adolph Drewsen and Ingeborg Collin. Arrival in Triest on the 31st.
Aboard the steamship 'Roma' to Venice. Continuing on 6th June by train to Peschiera and by steamship across Lake Garda to Riva. From here with an omnibus along a rough cliff road to Trient. Further via Botzen and Innsbruck to Munich (arrival 12th June).
Departure from Munich. Travels to Weimar (arriving 27th). Has lunch with Liszt. He and the cigar-smoking princess with whom he lives applaud HCA when he informs them that he alone had clapped for Wagner's overture to Tannhäuser at a performance in Leipzig. He and Einar continue to Eisenach on 29th, and HCA goes by himself to the castle Wilhelmsthal, where he stays until 2nd July with Carl Alexander, who is now grand duke. Sleeps in the rooms which the young Goethe last had stayed in there.
Returns home to Copenhagen.
The 50th birthday of HCA. Is celebrated only with gifts from friends and a dinner at the home of Adolph Drewsen. In the evening, HCA sits at home proof-reading the stories and the auto-biography.
Release of the book: Historier. Med 55 Illustrationer efter Originaltegninger af V. Pedersen, skaarne i Træ af Ed. Kretzsmar (Stories. With 55 Illustrations Based on Original Drawings by V. Pedersen, Cut in Wood by Ed. Kretzsmar). There are 24 stories, of which 3 are new: "Et Blad fra Himlen" (A Leaf from Heaven), "Klods-Hans" (Clumsy Hans) and "Ib og lille Christine" (Ib and Little Christine).
Start of a 3-month trip to Germany and Italy. In Dresden, HCA's head is measured by Carl Gustav Carus, the physician-in-ordinary of the King of Sachsen:
"It is amongst the smaller, nor is the brain of the larger, but very developed regarding imagination and feeling, to such a degree that I would go mad, had God not provided me with predominant will and energy" (the diary, 21st july).
Edgar returns home via Göttingen. On the next day, HCA travels to Weimar. On 6th September he privately marks the day of his first arrival in Copenhagen. Returns via Kassel, Göttingen, Hannover and Altona. Continues to Flensburg, takes the steamship to Svendborg, and from here a carriage to Glorup Estate, where he stays from 21st to 26th September.
The opera Klein Karen (Liden Kirsten) (Little Kirsten) is staged by Liszt in Weimar as promised.
By train to Korsør (the trip took 3 hours and 15 minutes). From Copenhagen HCA travelled with the Czech pianist and composer Alexander Dreyschock. Takes the steamship Zephyr to Kiel. Arrives in Dresden 10th June. Continues to Weimar 22nd June. Is welcomed by the grand duke at Ettersburg:
"Tears came to my eyes when I thought about how I, the son of a poor shoemaker and washerwoman, was embraced by the nephew of the Emperor of Russia; how odd when extremes meet" (the diary, 23rd).
Return to Dresden. 4th - 30th June: At Maxen once again. In Dresden once again from 30th July to the 4th August. From there to Berlin, on to Hamburg on 5th, to Rendsborg on 7th, and from there on 9th. Wants to go to Korsør and from here to Basnæs Estate, but ends up going ashore in Svendborg and then on to Glorup Estate, where he stays from 9th to 19th August, working on At være eller ikke være (To Be or Not To Be).
17th - 20th May
Visits the queen dowager at Sorgenfri Castle, where he reads aloud from his new novel To Be or Not To Be. The queen is moved to tears by the ending. The novel is released 20 May in Danish, English and German at the same time.
Departure from Copenhagen for the purpose of visiting Dickens, who has invited him to stay. Arriving on 11th in London. Goes immediately to Dicken's country home, Gads Hill at Higham. Staying with Dickens 11th June - 15 July, partly at Gad's Hill, partly at Tavistock House in London. Is very aware that his lengthy stay is not appreciated by the other members of Dicken's family, especially the children. Learns, by and by, to speak and read a certain amount of English .
Drives to Maidstone, where he takes leave of Dickens. By ship to France. Is in Paris from 17th - 21st. The stay here is embittered by his reading negative reviews of the novel. Visits the publishers Lorck and Wiedemann i Leipzig and continues to Dresden, where he is met by the Serres. Is mainly at Maxen until 31st August, but in between he also stays in Dresden with the Serres.6th September he travels home via Kassel, Hannover and Hamburg. Takes the steamship Eideren from Kiel to Korsør. Goes straight to Copenhagen.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier (New Tales and Stories), including "Suppe paa en Pølsepind" (Soup on a Sausage Stick), "Flaskehalsen" (The Bottle Neck), "Pebersvendens Nathue" (The Nightcap of the Peversvend), "Noget" (Something), "Det gamle Egetræes sidste Drøm" (The Old Oak Tree's last Dream) and "Abc-bogen" (The A-B-C Book). 15th May Nye Eventyr og Historier. Anden Samling (New Tales and Stories. Second Installment), including "Dynd-Kongens Datter" (The Marsh King's Daughter), "Hurtigløberne" (The Racers) and "Klokkedybet" (The Bell Deep) is released.
Is summoned to dine at court with King Frederik VII for the first time. 31st March he is bestowed with the honorary Silver Cross from the order "Men of the Dannebrog".
15th June - 23rd August
Journey to Germany and Switzerland with Harald Drewsen (the younger brother of Viggo and Einar, son of Adolph Drewsen and Ingeborg Collin). In the course of this tourist trip, HCA very often came across persons who either sat reading in books by him or who spoke of him, without knowing who it was in front of them.
October or November
HCA is the first Danish writer to read aloud for the oldest association of workers. The reading drew a great crowd. HCA was nervous about this new audience which he was unaccustomed to:
"It was an uneasy and agitated time in Copenhagen. Far more people crowded in than the great hall could seat; outside, throngs of people leaned against the windows, demanding these be opened; it was quite overwhelming for a highly strung, timid nature such as mine. However, as soon as I stood on the platform all my fears were gone! (in the continuation of Mit Livs Eventyr (The Fairy Tale of My Life)).
Commences the trip to Jutland. Via Korsør-Århus to Silkeborg. Stays with the Drewsens here until 4th July, then continues via Herning and Holstebro to Nørre Vosborg. Goes on an outing to see the North Sea and visit Husby Vicarage. 21st July he continues to Fjaltring Vicarage and goes on an outing from here to Bovbjerg. On to Lemvig on 23rd, sailing on the Limfjord past Struer and Thisted to Ålborg.
Sails in a barge across the Limfjord to Nørresundby, where he is collected by Christian Michael Rottbøll, landowner, and taken by carriage to Børglum Kloster (formerly a convent, now estate), from where there are outings to Løkken, a seaside town. Also outings to the sand dunes at Rubjerg.
Rottbøll drives HCA to Hjørring, where he stays at the Hotel du Nord. From here HCA continues by mail coach on 11th to Frederikshavn. On 17th August he is driven to Jerup. From here, a peasant drives him and Carl Uldall to Skagen. At Skagen, HCA lodges at "The inn [Brøndum's] right out in the other end of the town" (the diary). Sees Grenen (the tip of Jutland), the lighthouse and Gammel Skagen (old Skagen). HCA notes his impressions of Skagen in the diary on 18th:
"The streets are fenced off with string, behind there are small patches of potatoes or grain; dried fish line the outside of houses, for which ship timber has been used. Here and there a little shed, whose roof is the hull of a boat. The street covered with deep sand, the town unbelievably long; with dunes, potato storage and grain fields, children sleeping in the sand".
Leaves Skagen on 19th via Frederikshavn and Sæby, headed for Ålborg (arrival 21st). . 25th August he departs Ålborg at night, travelling via Hobro to Randers and on from here on 28th to Hjermind Vicarage near Bjerringbro (on the way he writes the poem "Jylland mellem tvende Have" (Jutland Betwixt Two Seas). Here he meets, amongst others, the daughter of Bishop Otte Laub, Louise Magdalene, who he considers to be most charming. 2nd September he departs Bjerringbro for Asmildkloster (a convent) at Viborg. Sees Viborg Cathedral. Continues the journey on 8th September, when Hjalmar Collin drives HCA to Silkeborg. HCA is worried about the outbreaks of cholera in the towns of east Jutland. Continues on 10th by carriage through Vejle to Kolding. Then from Korsør to Sorø on 12th September. Return to Copenhagen on 13th September.
Once again, HCA reads aloud for the Workers' Association [presumably the new one of 1860]; "there were crushing crowds outside but I was able to remain completely calm and read well and was greatly applauded", writes HCA in the almanac. In a letter dated 21st January to Mrs Scavenius at Basnæs Estate (not printed), he writes:
On Monday I read aloud for the Workers' Association, which I am sure Your Grace has read about in [the newspaper] Berlings Tidende; It is surely of immeasurable benefit that several professors and poly-technicians have joined forces to arrange lectures for the working class, 3 times a week. It was then decided to also try giving these people a little poetry, and it turned out to be extremely popular. The hall was completely full, 700 people I think [...]
21st May - 10th November
Prince Frederik (the later Frederik VIII) seeks out HCA after 9 in the evening, so as to bid him farewell, before his trip abroad,that goes to among others Göttingen, Nürnberg, Regensburg, Brunnen, Luzern, Biel, Le Locle, Yverdon, Neufchatel, Lausanne, Ouchy, Montreux, Geneva, Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin and Odense, where among other things he spends time with Julius Gerson ("A Little Pixie Left"), who is the editor of the newspaper Fyens Stiftstidende. Sees that the house of his parents has been rebuilt, with an extra floor on top, and that many changes have occurred. Continues by stagecoach to Nyborg on 10th and from there by steamship to Korsør.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier. Anden Række (New Tales and Stories. Second Series).The booklet includes "Tolv med Posten" (Twelve by the Mail), "Skarnbassen" (The Beetle), "Hvad Fatter gjør, det er altid det Rigtige" (What the Old Man Does is Always Right), "De Vises Sten" (The Stone of The Wise Man), "Sneemanden" (The Snowman), "I Andegaarden" (In the Duck Yard), "Det nye Aarhundredes Musa" (The New Century's Goddess). Reads the new fairy-tales at the Students' Association on this day.
Departure from Copenhagen to Sorø, where Jonas Collin Jr. also arrives on the following day, in order to accompany HCA on a journey to Italy. Arrival in Rome on 28th April. They stay in Rome till 29th May. On 29 May the trip continues via Civita vecchia, Livorno, Pisa to Florence, where he and Jonas Collin Jr. remain from 31st May - 4th June. They then return to Livorno and continue from here by ship to Genoa, then travelling via Turino to Milan (here from 10th - 12th june). HCA is increasingly annoyed with his young travelling companion. 17th - 22nd June: In Bex. HCA commences work here on his story "Isjomfruen" (The Ice Maiden). They return to Basnæs Estate on 22th August.
Jonas Collin, senior, dies. 2nd September HCA attends the funeral. On the same day, HCA's commemorative poem for Collin is printed in the newspaper Dagbladet. HCA is very depressed at this time and feels lonely after Collin's passing.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier. Anden Række. Anden Samling (New Tales and Stories. Second Series. Second Installment). (Includes: "Isjomfruen" (The Ice Maiden), "Sommerfuglen" (The Butterfly), "Psychen" (The Psyche), "Sneglen og Rosenhækken" (The Snail and the Rosebush)).
A highly emotional friendship develops between HCA and Harald Scharff, the ballet dancer. Their friendship lasts approximately one and a half years.
23rd July - 21st October
Commences the journey to Spain with Jonas Collin jnr. They travel by wagon over the Pyrenees early in the morning on 6th September, then into Spain. They stay in Barcelona from 7th to 16th September. Whilst there HCA develops a taste for smoking cigars ("which I now enjoy", the diary 8th), when he sits on the balcony and enjoys the Spanish evening. Goes to see bull-fighting. Stay in Murcia (23rd - 26th), Cartagena (26th - 29th), Málaga (30th September - 5th October). Continues the trip via Loja to Granada, where they stay from 6th to 21st October. Is invited out to look at ladies and feels his blood churning, as also happened earlier during the stay in Spain.
Return via Loja to Málaga, where they stay from 22nd - 29th October. On 2nd November they sail to Morocco. To Cádix on 9th November. On 13th November via Jeres to Sevilla, where on the first evening in the town he is inspired to write a poem about the cigar! On 22nd November by train to Cordoba. On to Madrid, where they stay from 26th November - 2nd December. On 19th December via St. Chidrian to Búrgas. On 22nd December they move on from Búrgos through San Sebastián and Irún into France to Bayonne.
23rd - 27th December
In Bayonne, where they spend Christmas at the hotel with cake, champagne and cognac. A wax candle from Rome is placed in the champagne bottle and serves as their Christmas tree. The trip continues on 29th via Bayonne to Dax and on to Bordeaux, where they celebrate the New Year, once more with champagne and cake.
1st January - 20th March
In Bordeaux and Paris. Departs from Paris on 20th March. Arrives in Copenhagen on 31st March.
6 poems about Spain are printed in the magazine Illustreret Tidende on 5th April. HCA completes the first revision of the book on Spain at Basnæs, where he stays from 8th to 20th May. The book is released with the title I Spanien (In Spain) on 9th November. HCA's friends are shocked by the sensuality of the poems in the book.
Return to Copenhagen, where boredom sets in almost immediately.
During the funeral preparations for Frederik VII (who dies on 15th November), signs of war with Germany surface once again. HCA is very depressed:
"The situation looks very bleak. It is as though Denmark faces her final hour. All I can think of is war or rebellion, my spirits are troubled: one hears empty political speeches. I picture my few savings disappearing, see myself begging in my old age [...] It's all over for Denmark, and for the existence of my happiness - the night of death draws near"
(the diary, 12th).
War breaks out, the Germans cross the Ejder. 18th April: The assault on Dybbøl. The war affected HCA deeply due to his many close relations to Germany. Germany was his other home, and the war brought misery and desruption. He had trouble writing because of it.
HCA describes his state of mind in the diary on 22nd: "godless, bitter towards people and without confidence in God". However, he immediately feels this line of thinking is sinful towards God. Also in the diary (27th):
It is quite tragic the way I am idle and loafing about, accomplishing next to nothing. The weather is very cold, most have a fire. I watch the day passing, wish it was evening so I could go to bed. I look forward to nothing. There is nothing inside me. What will become of me.
HCA's assets are calculated at 11,484 rdl. This equals over 1,000,000 Dkr. in today's money. The amount has increased by 1,445 rdl. during the year. Early this year his taxes amounted to 12 rdl. and 48 skilling (farthings) quarterly.
HCA's 60th birthday is celebrated and he is overwhelmed by a shower of greetings and gifts. The day is rounded off with a large dinner held by the Henriques family. In the evening, HCA goes to the theatre.
HCA is informed that his fairy-tales have been translated to and released in Sanskrit. On 3rd July he reads in the newspaper Fædrelandet that some of his fairy-tales have been translated into New Greek.
Is invited to Lisbon to visit George O'Neill (Portuguese merchant and Danish consular general in Lisbon).
Departs for Sweden (via Malmø, Jönköping and Falköping to Stockholm). Originally, HCA had planned a trip to Portugal, but gave up on the idea upon hearing that cholera had broken out in Spain and that there was also a case of the disease in Lisbon. HCA decides to go to Stockholm instead. Stays in Stockholm from 17th to 24th September. Travels with Henriques to Uppsala from 24th to 27th September. Departs from Stockholm on 7th October.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier. Anden Række. Tredie Samling (New Tales and Stories. Second Series. Third Installment). Included are: ("Lygtemændene ere i Byen, sagde Mosekonen" (The Will-o'-the-Wisps are in Town), "Veirmøllen" (The Windmill), "Sølvskillingen" (The Silver Shilling), "Bispen paa Børglum og hans Frænde" (The Bishop of Börglum and his Men), "I Børnestuen" (In the Children's Room), "Guldskat" (Golden Treasure), "Stormen flytter Skilt" (The Storm Shifts the Signboards).
Departure from Copenhagen, after having said good bye to both the king and queen, the crown prince (the later King Frederik VIII) and Princess Dagmar. In Paris 29th March - 13th April. On 1st April, he accompanies Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark (the later King Frederik VIII) to the races in Vincennes. Departure from Paris on 13th April. Via Tours to Bordeaux. From here to Bordeaux. On to Bayonne, from there across the Spanish border to San Sebastián and on via Burgos to Madrid, where he stays from 30th April to 3rd May.
6th May - 14th August
Guest at the O'Neill's. Stays at Quinta do Pinheiro in Palhava with the merchant George (Jorge) O'Neill, who is the Danish consul-general in Lisbon from 6th May to 8th June. They have known each other about 40 years. 8th June - 9th July HCA stays with Carlos O'Neill in Setubal. 9th - 26th July he is staying with George O'Neill once more. George encourages HCA to go to Lisbon to screw (this is the expression noted in the diary on 12th). In the following period of time, HCA tormented by sexual frustrations.
Takes the steam-ship Navarro from Lisbon to Bordeaux. From here via Blois to Paris, where he visits a brothel:
During this entire trip I have been urged to seek out a prostitute. However tired I was, I did, all the same, decide to see one of these creatures. I approached a house; there appeared a woman in the business of selling human flesh, and four prostitutes paraded for me. The youngest was 18, or so they said. I asked her to stay. She wore almost nothing but a shift, I felt so sorry for her. I paid 5 francs to the madam, gave her, when she asked me for it, 5 francs, but did nothing; merely looked at the poor child, who undressed completely and seemed surprised that I merely looked at her
(the diary, 30th).
Arrival in Odense.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier. Anden Række. Fjerde Samling (New Tales and Stories. Second Series. Fourth Installment) ("Gjemt er ikke glemt" (Kept Secret but not Forgotten), "Portnerens Søn" (The Porter's Son), "Flyttedagen" (Moving Day), "Sommergjækken" (The Snowdrop), "Moster" (Aunty), "Skrubtudsen" (The Toad).
Departure from Copenhagen. HCA stays in Paris from 15th April to 9th May and goes to see the World Exhibition several times. He spends time with the somewhat rakish Robert Watt, who "told me many wild, sensuous stories" (the diary, 17th). On 5th May HCA is so sexually excited by the stories told by Watt that he goes to a brothel, but
"left without having sinned in action, but probably in thought.!"
(the diary, same day).
26th May - 7th June
On the silver wedding anniversary of the king and queen (26th May), HCA is appointed titular Councillor of State (3rd rank; e.g. when there is a banquet at the castle, the first three ranks are invited). He is back in Copenhagen on the 7th June.
1st - 30th September
Sets of for Paris accompanied by Robert Watt. They stay in Paris from 7th to 22nd September. HCA visits the World Exhibition once again and goes with Robert Watt to a brothel, but does not, once again, go beyond talking with a prostitute. Departure from Paris on 22nd September. In Copenhagen on 30th.
At the town hall, in the morning, HCA is proclaimed honorary citizen. A large gala dinner is held at the town hall in the evening, with 240 guests. The royal family send a telegram to congratulate and there is a deputation from the Association of Work and Industry. Flags are raised throughout the town, there is a torchlight procession and while when he appears at the window of the town hall, HCA is met with song and a nine-fold hurrah from the crowd on the square below. On the following days, dinners are held for HCA by the mayor, the bishop (where there are 130 guests) and by the dean. Goes with the bishop to see the charity school, which he had gone to himself, as well as Lahns Foundation and the childhood home.
26th April - 4th July
HCA departs from Odense on 26th April. Stays in Amsterdam from 30th April to 7th May. Continues to Antwerpen and Gent in Belgium on 7th May. 11th - 19th May he stays in Paris, where Einar Drewsen welcomes him. Accompanies Einar to a brothel,
"where I, however, merely sat and talked to Fernanda, the little Turkish girl, while E amused himself. She was the prettiest, really. We spoke about Constantinople, her home town, and about the illumination there on Mohamed's birthday. She was very eager "pour fair l'amour", but I said I was there just to talk, nothing else. Come soon she said, but not tomorrow as that is my day off. Poor woman."
(the diary, 17th).
19th May - 4th July
Departure from Paris. Travel via Switzerland and Germany. Arrival in Copenhagen on 4th July.
Receives a visit from Georg Brandes, who - according to HCA - is very enthusiastic about "Dryaden" (The Wood Nymph), which HCA reads aloud for him. Sees Brandes once more at a dinner held by Edvard Collin on 2nd November. Dryaden. Et Eventyr fra Udstillingstiden i Paris 1867 (The Wood Nymph. A Tale from the World Exhibition in Paris 1867) is released individually on 5th December. Second edition of Dryaden is released already on 15th December.
Release of "Et Besøg i Portugal 1866" (A Visit to Portugal 1866) in volume 28 of Samlede Skrifter (Collected Works).
The 50th anniversary HCA's departure from Odense town as a child. The event is celebrated first by the Hartmanns, who arrange a dinner. Later, he reads aloud at the Students' Association and is cheered there.
On this the 50th anniversary of his arrival in Copenhagen, HCA is celebrated first by the hotel. Then Natalie Zahle arrives with two students and some teachers. A banquet is held at Vincents restaurant. On this day he is appointed commander of The Order of Dannebrog (2nd grade).
Departure from Basnæs. HCA now commences a journey in Europe which will last almost 5 1/2 months. Arrives at Dresden on 2nd October. Guest at Maxen, the estate, with Mrs Serre from 3rd to 11th October. Departs from Dresden to Prague on 13th October. Arrival in Vienna on 17th October. 4th November he travels from Vienna to Munich, where he stays from 8th to 16th November. Arrives in Nice on 30th November and stays until 31st January 1870. On Christmas Eve, a tribute is made to him at the hotel. He reads aloud for the guests on Christmas Day and New Years Eve.
Release of Tre nye Eventyr og Historier (Three New Tales and Stories) , including: ("Hønse- Grethes Familie" (Chicken Grethe's Family), "Hvad Tidselen oplevede" (What Happened to the Thistle) and "Hvad man kan hitte på" (What One Can Invent)).
31st January - 11st March
Departure from Nice on 31st January. Arrival in Odense on 8th March. Arrival in Copenhagen, where he moves in at Hotel d'Angleterre (no. 66), on 11th March.
26th June - 19th July
At Holsteinborg Estate, where he is met with hoisted flags on arrival. Starts work on Lykke Peer (Lucky Peter) whilst there. Finishes the book whilst staying with the Henriques at Petershøj (9th - 19th July). Release on 11th November.
The first contact with Henrik Ibsen. HCA reads Peer Gynt before the meeting:
It's as if it were written by a mad poet, one becomes disturbed oneself if one wishes to live in this book; The verses aren't good either, there's something quite sick about the whole thing. I regret having read it, as Ibsen is coming here tonight for the first time, I've never met him, he's known as a silent and dark fellow. After dinner he arrived with Bloch and made a good impression. He was well-spoken and polite, we all liked him
(the diary, same day).
25th July - 2nd August
Travels to Norway, through Sweden. Arrives in Karlstad on 2nd August. Then continues across the Norwegian border, via Kongsvinger, to Christiania (Oslo).
5th - 25th August
In Norway. Is greeted by Bjørnson on arrival at Christiania railway station. Whilst there he lodges at Hotel Victoria. Visits Bjørnson at his country home on several occasions and goes on outings in the region around Christiania.
Departure from Christiania. Back in Copenhagen, where he moves in with the Melchiors at Rolighed, on 31st August.
From King Karl XV of Sweden-Norway,HCA receives the Norwegian Order of Olav, with a star. The order was bestowed upon him in September.
Release of Eventyr og Historier. Ny Samling (Tales and Stories. New Edition) , including: ("Lykken kan ligge i en Pind" (Luck May Lie in a Pin), "Kometen" (The Comet), "Ugedagene" (The Days Of the Week ), "Solskins-Historier" (Sunshine Stories), "Oldefa'er" (Great-Grand Father), "Hvem var den Lykkeligste?" (Which Was the Happiest?), "Lysene" (The Candles), "Det Utroligste" (The Most Incredible Thing), "Hvad hele Familien sagde" (What the Whole Family Said), "Dandse, dandse Dukke min!" (Dance, Dance, Doll of Mine!), "Spørg Amagermo'er!" (The Carrot Wedding), "Den Store Søslange" (The Great Sea Serpent), "Gartneren og Herskabet" (The Gardener and the Noble Family" [first print].
Departure from Basnæs Estate. Meets up with his travelling companion William Bloch, who has been invited on the journey as HCA's guest, in Korsør. They go to Odense first, where HCA shows William Bloch the old places. They traveled on to Dresden. On 25th April they moved on to Prague (staying there from 25th - 27th), then via Brünn to Vienna, where they stayed 28th April - 4th May. On 4th May on into Italy. On 17th May from Venice to Munich. Departs Munich on 25th May. At Basnæs Estate from 7th - 13th June.
November and December
HCA is very ill. The royal family follow his condition closely, frequently sending greetings and making inquiries, and Crown Prince Frederik visits him. HCA is highly unbalanced during this period of time and feels he is on the brink of insanity.
Release of Nye Eventyr og Historier. Tredie Række. Anden Samling (New Tales and Stories. Third Series. Second Installment) including "Hvad gamle Johanne fortalte" (What Old Johanne Told), "Portnøglen" (The Gate Key), "Krøblingen" (The Cripple), "Tante Tandpine" (Aunty Toothache).
HCA is once more up and about after the period of serious illness. The Melchiors make sure there is a Christmas tree in HCA's apartment in Nyhavn, and they and William Bloch see to it that he has;
"...a lovely Christmas Eve, really, one I had not expected at all"
Based on the pain, HCA becomes aware that he probably has some kind of problem with his liver. (However, his doctor Theodor Collin, believes it is "wind in the major intestine" and prescribes a laxative and camomile tea (the diary)). At this time HCA is preparing for a journey to Switzerland.
14th April - 25th July
Journey to Germany and Switzerland with Nicolaj Bøgh. In Geneva 1st - 6th June. A side-trip into Italy: Chiavenna, Maloja, Silvaplana, back via St. Moritz, Samaden, then across the Albula-pass and Bergün to Alveneu, Chur, Rorschach, Lindau, Augsburg and Munich. To Nuremberg on 16th July, on through Bamberg, Meiningen, Eisenach, Kassel and Hannover to Hamburg. On 25th July from Hamburg via Slesvig, Middelfart and Korsør to Copenhagen. HCA hardly has the strength to drag himself along on this final leg of the journey. Is very dependent on Bøgh for help.
Back in Copenhagen. Moves in at Rolighed (the home of the Melchior family), where he stays till 9th September. Ill and weak.
Flags are kept at half-mast today, as this particular 2nd April is Maundy Thursday, just as it had been in 1801 on the day of the Battle of "Reden" (an inconclusive battle waged between the British and Danish navies, just outside the harbour in Copenhagen). HCA interprets this as a bad omen for himself, as this is his birthday. He is inundated with flowers, greeting cards and visitors to mark the day. Amongst others, Crown Prince Frederik comes to see him. HCA is appointed "konferensråd", a high Danish title, now obselete.
To Holsteinborg, where he stays till 18th June, where he is;
...taken care of, tended to, made a fuss of, like a dear child of the family. You can not imagine a more charming, meticulous hostess than Countess Holstein. I feel so happy, so content and for each passing day my disposition improved greatly
(letter to Henriette Collin dated 20th June)
Back in Copenhagen, where he moves in at Rolighed, the home of the Melchior family.
Here at "Rolighed" everyone is surprised at how well I look and am able to move about, even my barber (who said today that when he saw me last he would not have wagered a mere pipe of tobacco on me, so sure was he that he had shaved me for the last time). All the same, I do suffer quite a bit from arthritis, in the hands, elbows and knees and often let out a yell; "av!"
(letter to Henriette Collin dated 20th June)
Moves in at Nyhavn 18. Is still suffering from illness. Often needs to take morphine at night.
Is appointed Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog, first rank.
HCA is paid tribute from near and far on his birthday. In Odense a commemorative plaque is laid in the wall of his childhood home. The evening is spent with the Melchiors. To mark his birthday, the Royal Theatre perform the play Den ny Barselstue (The New Lying-in Room) and the opera Liden Kirsten (Little Kirsten).
Is collected and taken to the Melchior family at Rolighed.
HCA dies at five minutes past eleven. The cause of death is registered as cancer of the liver.
The funeral service for HCA is held at Copenhagen's cathedral "Vor Frue Kirke", (The Church of Our Lady). The king and crown prince are present. Speeches are made by Archdeacon C. Rothe and Bishop C.T. Engelstoft from Odense. HCA was buried at the cemetery "Assistentens Kirkegård" in a plot which Edvard Collin had picked out for HCA, himself and his wife Henriette. Edvard Collin is noted as residuary legatee in HCA's Will.